Day Three: Benedictine Rhythm of Life HIldegard of Bingen, Juiian of Norwich, the Contemplative Tree of Monasticism
HIldegard of Bingen lived her entire life from the age of 8 within the context of Benedictine spirituality. As such, every day was punctuated by eight periods of sung prayer, known as the "Divine Office". As part of this, there were songs associated with different times of day and different seasons of the liturgical year. The backbone of the music each week, however, was the psalter. Each and every week, all 150 of the Psalms were chanted antiphonally in plainchant. As paper was scarce and written music rare and precious, with the eventual goal that every monk or nun wold know these poems "by heart".
Almost all of Hildegard's music was written in connection to these psalms or expressly for use during liturgy. Antiphons were "preludes" sung before the psalm in accordance with special feast day celebrations; Hymns Sequences and Responsories were all part of the service of the mass.
The greatest and most innovative composition of HIldegard's is the Ordo Virtutem. Widely honored now as the first proto-opera. it is a 60-90 minute musical drama that portrays the journey of the soul (Anima) as she encounters the temptation of the Devil. After a prologue sung by the male voices of the Patriarchs, seventeen virtues, led by Queen Humility, arrive to guide Anima back to the right road. As each Virtue steps forward, she sings about her identity (("Ego Caritas", for example: "I am Compassion") and offers a teaching. In response, the Virtues answer her back. The allegory was no doubt an incredible spectacle in the monastery: we have reports that the performing nuns were decked in jewels, velvet gowns, and crowns with white veils. Imagine all of that performed by oil lamp and torchlight in a stone chapel.
Hildegard's Virtues: Humility (Queen of the Virtues), Hope Chastity Innocence Contempt of the World Celestial Love Discipline Modesty Mercy Victory Discretion Patience Knowledge of God Compassion Awe of God Obedience, Faith
To learn Hildegard of Bingen's music the way she might have taught it, I recommend Devi Mathieu's course on From the Ear to the Heart, taught monthly at the Santa Sabina Retreat Center (currently online)
To learn about Music Thanatology ( singing for the dying), see the work of Theresa Schroeder Scheker 's Chalice of Repose Project here which offers clinical trainings.
Kate Munger founded the Threshold Choir, a world wide network of small communities that gather to sing and compose simple chants to sing to the ill and the dying. Learn more and find a local chapter.
A very good "beginner's guide" to the psalms, with an accompanying CD.
There are several online sources for doing a version of the Divine (Daily) Office. Here are a few that differ quite a bit in language- some more traditional , others more inclusive. Most offer only morning and evening prayer- a very accessible way to get started in praying.
Taize is an ecumenical community in France whose worship consists almost entirely of simple chants in multiple languages. On their website here, you can learn about this beautiful and nurturing place of pilgrimage and download their simple and lovely music to learn.
MIssion St,. Claire offers a traditional liturgy of Biblical readings, hymns and prayers every morning and evening.
Solesmes Abbey has been renowned for centuries for their chant. Learn more here.